Findings from lab experiments and company studies

This is a summary of six case studies on the use of VR and AR technology conducted in both lab environments and at companies. The studies took place in 2016 and 2017 in collaboration with companies and Chalmers. The findings show that different technologies are suited to different applications, and it is important to know when and where technology should be deployed.

The case studies where carried out in a lab environment at Chalmers and at companies. Some only involved user tests, and others questionnaires. A summary of the case studies presented is provided below.

Case study

Lab/company

User tests

Questionnaire/Interview

Number

VR/AR

A

C

Y

-

12

AR

B

L

J

Y

30

AR

C

C

Y

Y

96

AR

D

C

Y

-

52

AR/VR

E

L

Y

Y

11

AR/VR

F

L

Y

Y

30

AR

Case study A involved testing of AR technology from XMReality. The operation evaluated was a stand in an advanced fixture. The result, in cycle time, is shown below. Four of the operators, of which one was experienced (designated by *), used the regular instructions, which were image based. Seven of the operators worked with Augmented Reality and expert assistance (so-called Remote guidance).

Ar Fallstudie A Kombinerad
Results from case study A

The results indicate that it takes more time for experienced operators when using AR than it does for those who are less experienced. For more details about case study A, click here.


In case study B, different types of assembly instructions were tested: Image, film, an explanation by an expert on site and an explanation by an expert remotely with the help of AR technology from XMReality.

Ar Fallstudie B Olika Tekniker

The product used during assembly is a lego gearbox consisting of 21 components. The cycle time for an experienced operator is around 55 seconds.

Ar Växellåda

Measurements were performed for five assemblies, tracking time (to the left [sec]) as well as quality (to the right).

Ar Fallstudie B Kombinerad

The result indicates that it takes longer to get up and running with the film-based instructions, as the installer watched the film once before commencing work.

The best quality is achieved by using AR, which may be because the expert can constantly see what the installer is doing and rectify any errors in assembly before the installer is finished. The poorest quality is achieved using the text-based instructions, which may be because the installer thinks they know the process but forgets certain components because they’re not looking at the instructions all the time.

More details about case study B are provided here


Case study C involved testing of AR technology from XMReality at Scanautomatic, in Gothenburg in 2016. The installers assembled the same product as in case study B, and were then asked to comment on how easy it was to use the technology.

Ar Fallstudie C Olika Tekniker

The results indicated that 87 percent thought the technology was easy to use. It was interesting to note that the majority of negative responses were registered before lunch, and at around four o’clock, when blood-sugar levels normally dip.

Ar Fallstudie C Svar

Case study D was not a case study as such, but investigated what students and industry think about AR and VR, and when it is expected to be used in industry. An interesting statement from the questionnaire was: Estimated time until the technology is expected to be established in future work.

Ar Fallstudie D Svar

More details about the survey responses are provided here


Case study E is a continuation of case study B in which a VR application is added and compared with the previous technologies. The application was built with the help of Unity, with HTC Vive used to assemble the gearbox. Each installer assembled five gearboxes, of which two were virtual and three real

Vr Liang

The results indicate that quality (image on the right) was lower during the first two assemblies carried out, both virtually and in reality. With regard to cycle time (image on the right), this was quicker than the majority of other technologies for the virtual part, but rises somewhat when the installer begins to assemble in reality.

Ar Fallstudie E Resultat

More details about case study E are provided here


Case study F involved testing of different types of instructions for assembling VR glasses in cardboard. A large part of the product development was carried out in order to facilitate assembly.

More details about case study F are provided here


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This article is categorised as Advanced  /  Published 2017-09-01  /  Authored by åsa